Fire Safety in Railways

The primary objective in the event of a fire on board is to enable passengers and staff to evacuate the rail vehicle and reach a safe location.


The Fire Protection – EU Regulation 1302/2014(Sorry, only available in German) places requirements on the fire protection of railway vehicles in passenger traffic. Specified by the technical specification for the interoperability of the subsystem “rolling stock – locomotives and passenger wagons” of the railway system of the European Union (short: TSI LOC&PAS).


Further information on technical specifications for interoperability can be obtained from the European Union Agency for Railways (ERA). 


This European Standard EN 45545 describes the measures to be taken in the design of vehicles in relation to the infrastructure on which they operate. We refer to:
EN 45545-1 Railway applications – Fire protection in railroad vehicles – general and
EN 45545-2 Requirements for the reaction to fire of materials and components. More information.

This European Standard applies to railway vehicles according to section 3. Freight vehicles are not covered by EN 45545.


In addition to the flames and the heat generated, the greatest threats during a fire are the smoke produced and the toxic gases in the burning train.


EN 45545 specifies the fire behavior requirements for materials and products used in railway vehicles, as defined in EN 45545-1. The operational and design categories defined in EN 45545-1 are used to establish hazard levels that are used as the basis of a classification system. For each hazard level, this part specifies the test methods, test conditions and fire performance requirements. It is not within the scope of this European Standard to describe measures to ensure the preservation of vehicles in the event of fire.


The entry into force of the LOC&PAS TSI clearly stipulates that all products and components installed in rail vehicles must comply with the normative requirements of DIN EN 45545-2 by 01.01.2018 at the latest in order to comply with fire protection in rail vehicles. (Cf. EU 1302/2014, Section


Floors and seat material must always be flame-retardant in lanes. Photo: Tero Vesalainen


Acceptance of the series of standards has increased beyond the borders of the European Union, so that DIN EN 45545 is increasingly being used worldwide alongside NFPA 130.
DIN EN 45545 is developed by all participating member states at CEN.




The DIN EN 45545 series of standards regulates fire protection in rail vehicles within the European Union and applies in the following countries:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Macedonia and the Republic of Macedonia.


The measures and requirements specified in EN 45545 serve to protect passengers and personnel in rail vehicles in the event of a fire on board. EN 45545 specifies:

  • Fire protection measures for railway vehicles;
  • Verification methods for these measures.
  • The protection of passengers and personnel is mainly based on measures to: Preventing fires due to technical faults and due to equipment design or vehicle design (Part 1, Part 4, Part 5 and Part 7);
  • Minimize the possibility of ignition of materials installed in rail vehicles due to accidents or vandalism (Part 1 and Part 2);
  • Detect a fire if it should occur (Part 6);
  • Limit the spread of fire by specifying materials according to their service categories (part 2) and by taking measures to contain them (part 3); –
  • Minimize the effects of fire in terms of heat, smoke, and toxic gases on passengers or personnel by specifying materials installed in rail vehicles (Part 2);
  • Control and manage a fire, for example, through fire detection, fire suppression, and/or emergency shutdown (Part 6).


DIN EN 45545-2+A1 : 2020 – Railway applications – Fire protection in railroad vehicles – Part 2: Requirements for fire behavior of materials and components including amendment A1:2021/11.