For trains, airplanes, ships and buses, strict requirements apply to fire behaviour, smoke development and toxicity of the materials and components used. The test methods used there apply to both railways and ships.
The flame spread test according to ISO 5658-2 is described for rail vehicles in prCEN/TS 45545-2 and for ships in IMO FTP Code Part 5.
The testing of smoke emissions and toxicity of materials and components is performed in the smoke chamber according to ISO 5659-2 and is described in prCEN/TS 45545-2 for rail vehicles and IMO FTP Code Part 2 for ships.
The decomposition gases are tested for the following toxic components:
CO, HF, HCl, HCN, NO2, and SO2. CO2 and HBr are also determined for railway applications.
In addition to various emergency exits, auxiliary materials such as fire extinguishers, fire detectors or rescue hammers, the built-in materials are of course also of the utmost importance for preventive fire protection.